Tradisionele resepte

Waarom sjefs daarvan hou om braai -skyfievertoning te kook

Waarom sjefs daarvan hou om braai -skyfievertoning te kook

Sal Budiaman

Jeffrey Coon, uitvoerende sjef, Dinosaur Bar-B-Que, New York City

'Ek hou daarvan om braaivleis te kook, want jy neem vleissnitte wat gewoonlik onhanteerbaar is, jy werk, jy gebruik jou kennis, jy rook dit stadig en stadig, jy maak 'n uitstekende produk uit wat baie mense nie so goed beskou nie ... altyd 'n uitdaging elke dag. Ek is mal daaroor en ek doen dit nou al 20 jaar.

Hy maak nie 'n grap nie - Coon het een keer 36 uur reguit aan die lyn by Meatopia gewerk.

Die ou wat nie rondskroef nie

Sal Budiaman

Jeffrey Coon, uitvoerende sjef, Dinosaur Bar-B-Que, New York City

'Ek hou daarvan om braaivleis te kook, want jy neem vleissnitte wat gewoonlik onhanteerbaar is, jy werk, jy gebruik jou kennis, jy rook dit stadig en stadig, jy maak 'n uitstekende produk uit wat baie mense nie so goed beskou nie ... altyd 'n uitdaging elke dag. Ons [skroef] nie en ons neem dit ernstig. "

Hy maak nie 'n grap nie - Coon het een keer 36 uur reguit aan die lyn by Meatopia gewerk.

Hou net daarvan

Sal Budiaman

Big Lou Elrose, pitmaster en vennoot, Wildwood braai, New York Stad

'Dit is lekker, want ek is 'n braaivleisvrou - ek is 'n afgetrede polisiebeampte in New York, en ek het begin mededingend braai, maar dit is hoe ek daarby uitgekom het.

Bors en varkskouer is waarskynlik my twee gunstelinge. Brisket is net so goed - jy weet, as jy bors behoorlik kook, 200 tot 225 grade, vir ongeveer 12 tot 16 uur, kom dit ongelooflik goed uit, en dieselfde met varkskouer, met al die spesiale vryf en inspuitings, jy kan 'n baie goeie produk kry. "

Die ou hou van varkvleis

Sal Budiaman

Glenn Rolnick, direkteur van kookkuns by Alicart Restaurant Group, Virgil's Real BBQ, New York Stad

"Varkvleis. Hou van varkvleis - ek hou van varkboudjies, ek hou van 'n bietjie vet in my vleis; ek hou nie van vleis wat nie vet bevat nie. Groot bas op die vel, sodat dit 'n lekker gekruide kors op die vel het buite, so dit is die eerste ding wat u proe as u byt, en dan proe u die lekker, klam, sagte vleis binne -in.

Klik hier om te sien hoe u 'n varkbraai in die agterplaas veilig kan doen.

Moenie braai in 'n boks sit nie

Sal Budiaman

Oliver Gift, uitvoerende sjef, Lowcountry, New York City

'Vir baie jong sjefs dink ek dat braai 'n uitstekende manier is ... daar is so 'n wye verskeidenheid in hierdie kos en styl.

Dit is nie meer 'suidelike' nie [meer] - dit is wêreldwyd; Ek het 'n spyskaart, 'n varkbalk wat baie asiaties is ... byvoorbeeld in die voorbereiding daarvan. Ek probeer die hele spektrum van die wêreld inneem en dit terugbring vir inspirasie - ek dink nie dat dit regtig vir iemand is om [braai] in 'n spesifieke gebied te sluit nie. "

Die mense Persoon

Sal Budiaman

Simon Glenn, sjef en 'nommer een -samesweerder', Tchoup Shop BBQ, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, N.Y.

"Dit is veral goed as jy wegkom van die kombuismure, en jy sit daar en sit by die rooster, bedien mense daar en kyk hoe mense jou kos interaktief eet."

Hou van veranderlikes

Sal Budiaman

Jeff Lutonsky, mede-eienaar, Mable's Smokehouse & Banquet Hall, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, N.Y.

"Ek geniet dit om met braai te kook, want dit verander voortdurend. Dit neem basies vyf minute om te leer en 'n leeftyd om te bemeester. So, daar is soveel verskillende veranderlikes wat iets kan gooi wat werk met goedkoop vleissnitte, goedkoop groente. ....................................................

Die Brisket Man

Sal Budiaman

Daniel DeLaney, eienaar, BrisketLab, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, NY (opening 31 Oktober 2012)

"Brisket is die moeilikste proteïen om te kook, maar as jy dit spyker, is dit regtig indrukwekkend-regtig, regtig verbysterend."

Die Man

Jason DeCrow/AP Images for Udi's Gluten Free Foods

Rocco DiSpirito, bekende sjef, televisieprogrammeester en James Beard bekroonde kookboekskrywer

"Ek dink die wonderlike van braai is dat dit altyd heerlik is en dat dit iets is wat almal kan doen. En dit is gewoonlik wanneer mans by kookkuns betrokke raak, so dit is 'n prettige geleentheid vir mans om by te dra om die gesin bymekaar te kry vir aandete." Mans hou inderdaad van hul vleis.


Barbecue is 'n Amerikaanse tradisie - van verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners

B arbecue is 'n vorm van kulturele mag en is intens polities, met 'n kultuur van reëls soos geen ander Amerikaanse kookkuns nie: sous of geen sous, watter sous sous die hele dier gekap of nie gekap het nie, of net ribbetjies of skouers. En as Amerika gaan oor mense wat nuwe wêrelde skep wat gebaseer is op rebellie teen onderdrukking en slawerny, dan is braai die ideale gereg: dit is gemaak deur verslaafde Afrikaners met inspirasie en bydraes van inheemse Amerikaners wat sukkel om hul onafhanklikheid te behou.

Die algemene kulturele verhaal van braai, dra egter uitsluitlik sy oorsprong toe aan inheemse Amerikaners en Europeërs, wat die etimologie van die woord van beide Carib deur Spaans (barbacoa - om oor warm kole op 'n houtraamwerk te braai) of uit Wes -Europese bronne (barbe-a-queue in Frans-"van kop tot stert"-wat goed pas by hedendaagse idees van eet sonder afval en afval). Sommige Amerikaanse braai -meesters het die innovasie van braai aan hul Duitse en Tsjeggiese voorouers toegeskryf.

In elk geval, beide in etimologie en kulinêre tegniek, is braai net so Afrikaans soos inheems en Europees, alhoewel verslaafde Afrikaners grootliks uit die moderne verhaal van Amerikaanse braai verwyder is. Ons voorvaders word op sy beste beskou as 'n sinnelose kookmasjien wat die vleis onder streng wit toesig voorberei het, of dit in die ergste geval was dat 'n braai 'vir' die slawe gemaak is, asof hulle 'n nuwe lekkernye voorgestel word. In werklikheid vorm hulle die kultuur van braai -tradisies in die nuwe wêreld, van ruk in Jamaika tot anticuchos in Peru tot kooktradisies in die koloniale Pampas. En die woord barbecue het ook wortels in Wes -Afrika onder die Hausa, wat die term "babbake" gebruik het om 'n kompleks van woorde te beskryf wat verwys na braai, rooster, 'n groot vuur bou, hare of vere sing en kos kook oor 'n lang tydperk van tyd oor 'n uitspattige vuur.

In die vroegste koloniale dae het die Wes -Indiese Eilande as 'n saadkolonie gedien vir die teenwoordigheid van verslaafde Afrikaners in die Nuwe Wêreld, veral omdat inheemse Amerikaners binne tien jaar na Europese aankoms massa, volksmoordverliese gely het as gevolg van die bekendstelling van siektes wat algemeen in Europa voorkom . Met slegs 'n paar oorblywende inheemse Carib- en Arawak -inwoners, het Afrikane vinnig die meerderheid geword op die eilande en uiteindelik die suidoostelike kus (waar baie eilandkoloniste aan die einde van die 17de en vroeë 18de eeu hervestig het, dikwels met hul slawe in sleep) .

In Jamaika het maroen rebelle wat slawerny teëgestaan ​​het en hul eie nedersettings gevorm het, bande gesmee met opstandige inheemse eilandbewoners in Wes -Indië en Latyns -Amerika (wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die moderne braaivleis wat bekend staan ​​as ruk). Soortgelyke bande is in die eerste gebiede van die Verenigde State gevestig om die aankoms van slawe -Afrikaners te sien, wat in 1526 plaasgevind het nadat die Spanjaard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon gesterf het in 'n poging om 'n kolonie te vestig in wat ons nou ken as Suid -Carolina. Ayllon se politieke opvolgers het die gebied verlaat en die verslaafde Afrikaners en die inheemse Amerikaners wat hulle daarheen gelei het, agtergelaat. By die Spaanse het varke gekom, wat wild geword het en tot vandag toe besmet is in die suidelike bosveld. Dit was in hierdie konteks dat braai sy debuut gemaak het op die huidige Amerikaanse grond.

Verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners het baie gemeen, kulinêr gesproke: hulle het op soortgelyke maniere gekook en geëet. ondanks 'n oseaan tussen hul beskawings. Dit is net logies dat, wanneer hul voedselweë, gewasse, kookmetodes en bewaringstelsels, jag, visvang en voedselopslag bots, daar diep ooreenkomste en ooreenkomste van tegniek, metode en vaardigheid sou wees. En Wes- en Sentraal -Afrikaners het nog altyd hul eie weergawes van die barbacoa en spitbraai van vleis. Terwyl ons in 'n tropiese klimaat leef, was sout, speserye en halfrook vleis by die slag, die sleutel om te verseker dat wild met minimale bederf na die dorp terugkeer. Feeste is gekenmerk deur die sout, speserye en braai van hele diere of groot vleissnitte.

In die koloniale en antebellum -Noord -Amerika het slawe -manne dus die meester -sjefs van die barbecue geword: houtsnitte, tekenprente, poskaarte en portrette uit die tydperk dokumenteer die rol wat swart sjefs gespeel het in die vorming van hierdie baie Amerikaanse, en veral die suidelike stapelvoedsel. Om te werk oor kuile ​​in die grond bedek met groen hout - net soos in Wes -Afrika of Jamaika - dit was slawe van mans en hul afstammelinge, nie die Bubbas van vandag se Barbecue Pitmasters nie, wat plaaslike grilltradisies vernuwend en verfyn het. As daar iets is, is die Duitse, Tsjeggiese, Mexikaanse en ander tradisies in Suid -Carolina, Missouri en Texas bygevoeg tot 'n basis wat deur swart hande gevorm is in die smeltkroes van slawerny.

In sommige opsigte is braai ware onafhanklikheidsdagkos. Terwyl Europese Amerikaners hulle gewoond maak aan die gebruik om gereedskap en selfs borde te laat vaar om meer te eet soos verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners - van spareribs tot mieliekop - gebruik hulle hul hande in 'n ongekende breuk met die formaliteite van die Ou Wêreld. Dit is nie sonder ironie dat slawe, die vroegste braaipitmeesters, 'n beroep op slawehouers en politici gehad het om te braai in die vierde Julie om bure en kiesers te wen nie. Toe hulle hul eie vryheid verkry, het die voormalige slawe die Junteenth gevier met niemand anders nie as hul gunsteling vryheidskos - braai.

Barbecue word nou algemeen erken as 'n stapelvoedsel van die Amerikaanse kookkuns - soveel so dat minstens drie nasionale vakansiedae (Memorial Day, Independence Day en Labor Day) daarmee gepaard gaan. Barbecue is gevul met die strewe na vryheid, maar dit is gekruid en gegeur deur die mense wat byna 'n eeu lank geen vryheid op onafhanklikheidsdag kon geniet nie.


Barbecue is 'n Amerikaanse tradisie - van verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners

B arbecue is 'n vorm van kulturele mag en is intens polities, met 'n kultuur van reëls soos geen ander Amerikaanse kulinêre tradisie nie: sous of geen sous watter soort sous die hele dier gekap of nie gekap het nie of net ribbetjies of skouers. En as Amerika gaan oor mense wat nuwe wêrelde skep wat gebaseer is op rebellie teen onderdrukking en slawerny, dan is braai die ideale gereg: dit is gemaak deur verslaafde Afrikaners met inspirasie en bydraes van inheemse Amerikaners wat sukkel om hul onafhanklikheid te behou.

Die algemene kulturele verhaal van braai, dra egter uitsluitlik sy oorsprong toe aan inheemse Amerikaners en Europeërs, die etimologie van die woord word gesê van beide Caribus en Spaans (barbacoa - om oor warm kole op 'n houtraamwerk te braai) of uit Wes -Europese bronne (barbe-a-queue in Frans-"van kop tot stert"-wat goed pas by hedendaagse idees van eet sonder afval en afval). Sommige Amerikaanse braai -meesters het die innovasie van braai aan hul Duitse en Tsjeggiese voorouers toegeskryf.

In elk geval, beide in etimologie en kulinêre tegniek, is braai net so Afrikaans soos inheems en Europees, alhoewel verslaafde Afrikaners grootliks uit die moderne verhaal van Amerikaanse braai verwyder is. Ons voorvaders word op sy beste beskou as 'n sinnelose kookmasjien wat die vleis onder streng wit toesig voorberei het, of dit in die ergste geval was dat 'n braai 'vir' die slawe gemaak is, asof hulle 'n nuwe lekkernye voorgestel word. In werklikheid het hulle die kultuur van braai -tradisies van die nuwe wêreld gevorm, van ruk in Jamaika tot anticuchos in Peru tot kooktradisies in die koloniale Pampas. En die woord barbecue het ook wortels in Wes -Afrika onder die Hausa, wat die term "babbake" gebruik het om 'n kompleks van woorde te beskryf wat verwys na braai, rooster, 'n groot vuur bou, hare of vere sing en kos kook oor 'n lang tydperk van tyd oor 'n uitspattige vuur.

In die vroegste koloniale dae het die Wes -Indiese Eilande as 'n saadkolonie gedien vir die teenwoordigheid van verslaafde Afrikaners in die Nuwe Wêreld, veral omdat inheemse Amerikaners binne tien jaar na Europese aankoms massa, volksmoordverliese gely het as gevolg van die bekendstelling van siektes wat algemeen in Europa voorkom . Met slegs 'n paar oorblywende inheemse Carib- en Arawak -inwoners, het Afrikane vinnig die meerderheid geword op die eilande en uiteindelik die suidoostelike kus (waar baie eilandkoloniste aan die einde van die 17de en vroeë 18de eeu hervestig het, dikwels met hul slawe op sleeptou) .

In Jamaika het maroen rebelle wat slawerny teëgestaan ​​het en hul eie nedersettings gevorm het, bande gesmee met opstandige inheemse eilandbewoners in Wes -Indië en Latyns -Amerika (wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die moderne braaivleis wat bekend staan ​​as ruk). Soortgelyke bande is in die eerste gebiede van die Verenigde State gevestig om die aankoms van slawe -Afrikaners te sien, wat in 1526 plaasgevind het nadat die Spanjaard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon gesterf het in 'n poging om 'n kolonie te vestig in wat ons nou ken as South Carolina. Ayllon se politieke opvolgers het die gebied verlaat en die verslaafde Afrikane en die inheemse Amerikaners wat hulle daarheen gelei het, agtergelaat. By die Spaanse het varke gekom, wat wild geword het en tot vandag toe besmet is in die suidelike bosveld. Dit was in hierdie konteks dat braai sy debuut gemaak het op die huidige Amerikaanse grond.

Verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners het baie gemeen, kulinêr gesproke: hulle het op soortgelyke maniere gekook en geëet. ondanks 'n oseaan tussen hul beskawings. Dit is net logies dat, wanneer hul voedselweë, gewasse, kookmetodes en stelsels vir bewaring, jag, visvang en voedselopslag bots, daar diep ooreenkomste en ooreenkomste van tegniek, metode en vaardigheid sou wees. En Wes- en Sentraal -Afrikaners het nog altyd hul eie weergawes van die barbacoa en spitbraai van vleis. Terwyl ons in 'n tropiese klimaat leef, was sout, speserye en halfrook vleis by die slag, die sleutel om te verseker dat wild met minimale bederf na die dorp terugkeer. Feeste is gekenmerk deur die sout, speserye en braai van hele diere of groot vleissnitte.

In die koloniale en antebellum -Noord -Amerika het slawe -manne dus die meester -sjefs van die barbecue geword: houtsnitte, tekenprente, poskaarte en portrette uit die tydperk dokumenteer die rol wat swart sjefs gespeel het in die vorming van hierdie baie Amerikaanse, en veral die suidelike stapelvoedsel. Om te werk oor kuile ​​in die grond bedek met groen hout - net soos in Wes -Afrika of Jamaika - dit was slawe van mans en hul afstammelinge, nie die Bubbas van vandag se Barbecue Pitmasters nie, wat plaaslike grilltradisies vernuwend en verfyn het. As daar iets is, is die Duitse, Tsjeggiese, Mexikaanse en ander tradisies in Suid -Carolina, Missouri en Texas bygevoeg tot 'n basis wat deur swart hande gevorm is in die smeltkroes van slawerny.

In sommige opsigte is braai ware onafhanklikheidsdagkos. Terwyl Europese Amerikaners hulle gewoond maak aan die gebruik om gereedskap en selfs borde te laat vaar om meer te eet soos verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners - van spareribs tot mieliekop - gebruik hulle hul hande in 'n ongekende breuk met die formaliteite van die Ou Wêreld. Dit is nie sonder ironie dat slawe, die vroegste braaipitmeesters, 'n beroep op slawehouers en politici gedoen het om te braai in die vierde Julie om bure en kiesers te wen nie. Toe hulle hul eie vryheid verkry, het die voormalige slawe die Junteenth gevier met niemand anders nie as hul gunsteling vryheidskos - braai.

Barbecue word nou algemeen erken as 'n stapelvoedsel van die Amerikaanse kookkuns - soveel so dat minstens drie nasionale vakansiedae (Memorial Day, Independence Day en Labor Day) daarmee gepaard gaan. Barbecue is gevul met die strewe na vryheid, maar dit is gekruid en gegeur deur die mense wat byna 'n eeu lank geen vryheid op onafhanklikheidsdag kon geniet nie.


Barbecue is 'n Amerikaanse tradisie - van verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners

B arbecue is 'n vorm van kulturele mag en is intens polities, met 'n kultuur van reëls soos geen ander Amerikaanse kookkuns nie: sous of geen sous, watter sous sous die hele dier gekap of nie gekap het nie, of net ribbetjies of skouers. En as Amerika gaan oor mense wat nuwe wêrelde skep wat gebaseer is op rebellie teen onderdrukking en slawerny, dan is braai die ideale gereg: dit is gemaak deur verslaafde Afrikaners met inspirasie en bydraes van inheemse Amerikaners wat sukkel om hul onafhanklikheid te behou.

Die algemene kulturele verhaal van braai, dra egter uitsluitlik sy oorsprong toe aan inheemse Amerikaners en Europeërs, die etimologie van die woord word gesê van beide Caribus en Spaans (barbacoa - om oor warm kole op 'n houtraamwerk te braai) of uit Wes -Europese bronne (barbe-a-queue in Frans-"van kop tot stert"-wat goed pas by hedendaagse idees van eet sonder afval en afval). Sommige Amerikaanse braai -meesters het die innovasie van braai aan hul Duitse en Tsjeggiese voorouers toegeskryf.

In elk geval, beide in etimologie en kulinêre tegniek, is braai net so Afrikaans soos inheems en Europees, alhoewel verslaafde Afrikaners grootliks uit die moderne verhaal van Amerikaanse braai verwyder is. Ons voorvaders word op sy beste beskou as 'n sinnelose kookmasjien wat die vleis onder streng wit toesig voorberei het, of dit in die ergste geval was dat 'n braai 'vir' die slawe gemaak is, asof hulle 'n nuwe lekkernye voorgestel word. In werklikheid vorm hulle die kultuur van braai -tradisies in die nuwe wêreld, van ruk in Jamaika tot anticuchos in Peru tot kooktradisies in die koloniale Pampas. En die woord barbecue het ook wortels in Wes -Afrika onder die Hausa, wat die term "babbake" gebruik het om 'n kompleks van woorde te beskryf wat verwys na braai, rooster, 'n groot vuur bou, hare of vere sing en kos kook oor 'n lang tydperk van tyd oor 'n uitspattige vuur.

In die vroegste koloniale dae het die Wes -Indiese Eilande as 'n saadkolonie gedien vir die teenwoordigheid van verslaafde Afrikaners in die Nuwe Wêreld, veral omdat inheemse Amerikaners binne tien jaar na Europese aankoms massa, volksmoordverliese gely het as gevolg van die bekendstelling van siektes wat algemeen in Europa voorkom . Met slegs 'n paar oorblywende inheemse Carib- en Arawak -inwoners, het Afrikane vinnig die meerderheid geword op die eilande en uiteindelik die suidoostelike kus (waar baie eilandkoloniste aan die einde van die 17de en vroeë 18de eeu hervestig het, dikwels met hul slawe in sleep) .

In Jamaika het maroen rebelle wat slawerny teëgestaan ​​het en hul eie nedersettings gevorm het, bande gesmee met opstandige inheemse eilandbewoners in Wes -Indië en Latyns -Amerika (wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die moderne braaivleis wat bekend staan ​​as ruk). Soortgelyke bande is in die eerste gebiede van die Verenigde State gevestig om die aankoms van slawe -Afrikaners te sien, wat in 1526 plaasgevind het nadat die Spanjaard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon gesterf het in 'n poging om 'n kolonie te vestig in wat ons nou ken as South Carolina. Ayllon se politieke opvolgers het die gebied verlaat en die verslaafde Afrikane en die inheemse Amerikaners wat hulle daarheen gelei het, agtergelaat. By die Spaanse het varke gekom, wat wild geword het en tot vandag toe besmet is in die suidelike bosveld. Dit was in daardie konteks dat braai sy debuut gemaak het op wat nou Amerikaanse grond is.

Verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners het baie gemeen, kulinêr gesproke: hulle het op soortgelyke maniere gekook en geëet. ondanks 'n oseaan tussen hul beskawings. Dit is net logies dat, wanneer hul voedselweë, gewasse, kookmetodes en bewaringstelsels, jag, visvang en voedselopslag bots, daar diep ooreenkomste en ooreenkomste van tegniek, metode en vaardigheid sou wees. En Wes- en Sentraal -Afrikaners het nog altyd hul eie weergawes van die barbacoa en spitbraai van vleis. Terwyl ons in 'n tropiese klimaat leef, was sout, speserye en halfrook vleis by die slag, die sleutel om te verseker dat wild met minimale bederf na die dorp terugkeer. Feeste is gekenmerk deur die sout, speserye en braai van hele diere of groot vleissnitte.

In die koloniale en antebellum -Noord -Amerika het slawe -manne dus die meester -sjefs van die barbecue geword: houtsnitte, tekenprente, poskaarte en portrette uit die tydperk dokumenteer die rol wat swart sjefs gespeel het in die vorming van hierdie baie Amerikaanse, en veral die suidelike stapelvoedsel. Om te werk oor kuile ​​in die grond bedek met groen hout - net soos in Wes -Afrika of Jamaika - was slawe van mans en hul afstammelinge, nie die Bubbas van vandag se Barbecue Pitmasters nie, wat plaaslike grilltradisies vernuwend en verfyn het. As daar iets is, is die Duitse, Tsjeggiese, Mexikaanse en ander tradisies in Suid -Carolina, Missouri en Texas bygevoeg tot 'n basis wat deur swart hande gevorm is in die smeltkroes van slawerny.

In sommige opsigte is braai ware onafhanklikheidsdagkos. Terwyl Europese Amerikaners hulle gewoond maak aan die gebruik om gereedskap en selfs borde te laat vaar om meer te eet soos verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners - van spareribs tot mieliekop - gebruik hulle hul hande in 'n ongekende breuk met die formaliteite van die Ou Wêreld. Dit is nie sonder ironie dat slawe, die vroegste braaipitmeesters, 'n beroep op slawehouers en politici gedoen het om te braai in die vierde Julie om bure en kiesers te wen nie. Toe hulle hul eie vryheid verkry het, het die voormalige slawe Junteenenth gevier met niemand anders nie as hul gunsteling vryheidskos - braai.

Barbecue word nou algemeen erken as 'n stapelvoedsel van die Amerikaanse kookkuns - soveel so dat minstens drie nasionale vakansiedae (Memorial Day, Independence Day en Labor Day) daarmee gepaard gaan. Barbecue is gevul met die strewe na vryheid, maar dit is gekruid en gegeur deur die mense wat byna 'n eeu lank geen vryheid op onafhanklikheidsdag kon geniet nie.


Barbecue is 'n Amerikaanse tradisie - van verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners

B arbecue is 'n vorm van kulturele mag en is intens polities, met 'n kultuur van reëls soos geen ander Amerikaanse kulinêre tradisie nie: sous of geen sous watter soort sous die hele dier gekap of nie gekap het nie of net ribbetjies of skouers. En as Amerika gaan oor mense wat nuwe wêrelde skep wat gebaseer is op rebellie teen onderdrukking en slawerny, dan is braai die ideale gereg: dit is gemaak deur slawe van Afrika met inspirasie en bydraes van inheemse Amerikaners wat sukkel om hul onafhanklikheid te behou.

Die algemene kulturele verhaal van braai, dra egter uitsluitlik sy oorsprong toe aan inheemse Amerikaners en Europeërs, wat die etimologie van die woord van beide Carib deur Spaans (barbacoa - om oor warm kole op 'n houtraamwerk te braai) of uit Wes -Europese bronne (barbe-a-queue in Frans-"van kop tot stert"-wat goed pas by hedendaagse idees van eet sonder afval en afval). Sommige Amerikaanse braai -meesters het die innovasie van braai aan hul Duitse en Tsjeggiese voorouers toegeskryf.

In elk geval, beide in etimologie en kulinêre tegniek, is braai net so Afrikaans soos inheems en Europees, alhoewel verslaafde Afrikaners grootliks uit die moderne verhaal van Amerikaanse braai verwyder is. Ons voorvaders word op sy beste beskou as 'n sinnelose kookmasjien wat die vleis onder streng wit toesig voorberei het, of dit in die ergste geval iets was wat 'vir' die slawe gemaak is, asof hulle 'n nuwe lekkernye voorgestel het. In werklikheid vorm hulle die kultuur van braai -tradisies in die nuwe wêreld, van ruk in Jamaika tot anticuchos in Peru tot kooktradisies in die koloniale Pampas. En die woord barbecue het ook wortels in Wes -Afrika onder die Hausa, wat die term "babbake" gebruik het om 'n kompleks van woorde te beskryf wat verwys na braai, rooster, 'n groot vuur bou, hare of vere sing en kos kook oor 'n lang tydperk van tyd oor 'n uitspattige vuur.

In die vroegste koloniale dae het die Wes -Indiese Eilande as 'n saadkolonie gedien vir die teenwoordigheid van verslaafde Afrikaners in die Nuwe Wêreld, veral omdat inheemse Amerikaners binne tien jaar na Europese aankoms massa, volksmoordverliese gely het as gevolg van die bekendstelling van siektes wat algemeen in Europa voorkom . Met slegs 'n paar oorblywende inheemse Carib- en Arawak -inwoners, het Afrikane vinnig die meerderheid geword op die eilande en uiteindelik die suidoostelike kus (waar baie eilandkoloniste aan die einde van die 17de en vroeë 18de eeu hervestig het, dikwels met hul slawe op sleeptou) .

In Jamaika het maroen rebelle wat slawerny teëgestaan ​​het en hul eie nedersettings gevorm het, bande gesmee met opstandige inheemse eilandbewoners in Wes -Indië en Latyns -Amerika (wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die moderne braaivleis wat bekend staan ​​as ruk). Soortgelyke bande is in die eerste gebiede van die Verenigde State gevestig om die aankoms van slawe -Afrikaners te sien, wat in 1526 plaasgevind het nadat die Spanjaard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon gesterf het in 'n poging om 'n kolonie te vestig in wat ons nou ken as Suid -Carolina. Ayllon se politieke opvolgers het die gebied verlaat en die verslaafde Afrikane en die inheemse Amerikaners wat hulle daarheen gelei het, agtergelaat. By die Spaanse het varke gekom, wat wild geword het en tot vandag toe besmet is in die suidelike bosveld. Dit was in daardie konteks dat braai sy debuut gemaak het op wat nou Amerikaanse grond is.

Verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners het baie gemeen, kulinêr gesproke: hulle het op soortgelyke maniere gekook en geëet. ondanks 'n oseaan tussen hul beskawings. Dit is net logies dat, wanneer hul voedselweë, gewasse, kookmetodes en stelsels vir bewaring, jag, visvang en voedselopslag bots, daar diep ooreenkomste en ooreenkomste van tegniek, metode en vaardigheid sou wees. En Wes- en Sentraal -Afrikaners het nog altyd hul eie weergawes van die barbacoa en spitbraai van vleis. Terwyl ons in 'n tropiese klimaat leef, was sout, speserye en halfrook vleis by die slag, die sleutel om te verseker dat wild met minimale bederf na die dorp terugkeer. Feeste is gekenmerk deur die sout, speserye en braai van hele diere of groot vleissnitte.

In die koloniale en antebellum -Noord -Amerika het slawe -manne dus die meester -sjefs van die barbecue geword: houtsnitte, tekenprente, poskaarte en portrette uit die tydperk dokumenteer die rol wat swart sjefs gespeel het in die vorming van hierdie baie Amerikaanse, en veral die suidelike stapelvoedsel. Om te werk oor kuile ​​in die grond bedek met groen hout - net soos in Wes -Afrika of Jamaika - dit was slawe van mans en hul afstammelinge, nie die Bubbas van vandag se Barbecue Pitmasters nie, wat plaaslike grilltradisies vernuwend en verfyn het. As daar iets is, is die Duitse, Tsjeggiese, Mexikaanse en ander tradisies in Suid -Carolina, Missouri en Texas bygevoeg tot 'n basis wat deur swart hande gevorm is in die smeltkroes van slawerny.

In sommige opsigte is braai ware onafhanklikheids -kos. Terwyl Europese Amerikaners hulle gewoond maak aan die gebruik om gereedskap en selfs borde te laat vaar om meer te eet soos verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners - van spareribs tot mieliekop - gebruik hulle hul hande in 'n ongekende breuk met die formaliteite van die Ou Wêreld. Dit is nie sonder ironie dat slawe, die vroegste braaipitmeesters, 'n beroep op slawehouers en politici gedoen het om te braai in die vierde Julie om bure en kiesers te wen nie. Toe hulle hul eie vryheid verkry het, het die voormalige slawe Junteenenth gevier met niemand anders nie as hul gunsteling vryheidskos - braai.

Barbecue word nou algemeen erken as 'n stapelvoedsel van die Amerikaanse kookkuns - soveel so dat minstens drie nasionale vakansiedae (Memorial Day, Independence Day en Labor Day) daarmee gepaard gaan. Barbecue is gevul met die strewe na vryheid, maar dit is gekruid en gegeur deur die mense wat byna 'n eeu lank geen vryheid op onafhanklikheidsdag kon geniet nie.


Barbecue is 'n Amerikaanse tradisie - van verslaafde Afrikaners en inheemse Amerikaners

B arbecue is 'n vorm van kulturele mag en is intens polities, met 'n kultuur van reëls soos geen ander Amerikaanse kookkuns nie: sous of geen sous, watter sous sous die hele dier gekap of nie gekap het nie, of net ribbetjies of skouers. En as Amerika gaan oor mense wat nuwe wêrelde skep wat gebaseer is op rebellie teen onderdrukking en slawerny, dan is braai die ideale gereg: dit is gemaak deur verslaafde Afrikaners met inspirasie en bydraes van inheemse Amerikaners wat sukkel om hul onafhanklikheid te behou.

Die algemene kulturele verhaal van braai, dra egter uitsluitlik sy oorsprong toe aan inheemse Amerikaners en Europeërs, die etimologie van die woord word gesê van beide Caribus en Spaans (barbacoa - om oor warm kole op 'n houtraamwerk te braai) of uit Wes -Europese bronne (barbe-a-queue in Frans-"van kop tot stert"-wat goed pas by hedendaagse idees oor eet sonder afval en afval). Sommige Amerikaanse braai -meesters het die innovasie van braai aan hul Duitse en Tsjeggiese voorouers toegeskryf.

In elk geval, beide in etimologie en kulinêre tegniek, is braai net so Afrikaans as inheems en Europees, alhoewel verslaafde Afrikaners grootliks uit die moderne verhaal van Amerikaanse braai verwyder is. Ons voorvaders word op sy beste beskou as 'n sinnelose kookmasjien wat die vleis onder streng wit toesig voorberei het, of dit in die ergste geval was dat 'n braai 'vir' die slawe gemaak is, asof hulle 'n nuwe lekkernye voorgestel word. In werklikheid het hulle die kultuur van braai -tradisies van die nuwe wêreld gevorm, van ruk in Jamaika tot anticuchos in Peru tot kooktradisies in die koloniale Pampas. En die woord barbecue het ook wortels in Wes -Afrika onder die Hausa, wat die term "babbake" gebruik het om 'n kompleks van woorde te beskryf wat verwys na braai, rooster, 'n groot vuur bou, hare of vere sing en kos kook oor 'n lang tydperk. tyd oor 'n uitspattige vuur.

In die vroegste koloniale dae het die Wes -Indiese Eilande as 'n saadkolonie gedien vir die teenwoordigheid van verslaafde Afrikane in die nuwe wêreld, veral omdat inheemse Amerikaners binne tien jaar na Europese aankoms massale en volksmoordverliese gely het as gevolg van die bekendstelling van siektes wat algemeen in Europa voorkom . Met slegs 'n paar oorblywende inheemse Carib- en Arawak -inwoners, het Afrikane vinnig die meerderheid geword op die eilande en uiteindelik die suidoostelike kus (waar baie eilandkoloniste aan die einde van die 17de en vroeë 18de eeu hervestig het, dikwels met hul slawe op sleeptou) .

In Jamaika het maroen rebelle wat slawerny teëgestaan ​​het en hul eie nedersettings gevorm het, bande gesmee met opstandige inheemse eilandbewoners in Wes -Indië en Latyns -Amerika (wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die moderne braaivleis wat bekend staan ​​as ruk). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Kyk die video: Vrtni kamin i roštilj (Desember 2021).